Key Definitions For Project Use

These definitions are intended to bring uniformity and coherence
to all project efforts but are open to inclusions and/or adjustments until
there is consensus by project participants.


Bias is an inclination for or against one person or group, especially in a way considered to be unfair. It is a belief that some ideas, people, etc. are better than others. When one person is biased towards a certain thing, it is difficult to make a fair judgment. This is why judges should always be unbiased. Bias is always linked to unfairness.

If you have a good impression of something, then you are biased toward it. But if you have a bad impression of something, you are biased against it. If you must make a choice about these two things, you’ll be inclined towards the impression you have a good impression about. So, you won’t consider its disadvantages or weak qualities much.

For example, imagine that you are a teacher, and you see two students fighting. You personally know one of them. So you jump to the conclusion that it was the other student who started the fight. Here you are being biased towards the student you personally know. But, you really have no idea who started the fight.


Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that is not based on actual experience or reason. It is often considered to be negative, and unfair towards a person based on that person’s membership in a particular social group. Prejudice can be based on factors like religion, gender, age, caste, and race. For example, some people may consider all Muslim women to be illiterate and uneducated. This is actually a prejudice against religion and gender.

Although prejudice can be both negative and positive, we often tend to have negative views toward those who don’t belong to our social group. In contrast, we show positive attitudes toward people who belong to our social groups. This mainly happens because of a lack of understanding and trust. It is also important to note that we learn prejudice from those around us; it is not something we are born with. But it is not very easy to change such prejudices since they have been ingrained in people since childhood.

Bias vs. Prejudice

An inclination for or against one
person or a group based upon actual experience or reason

Preconceived opinion, not
based upon actual experience
or reason

Both negative
and positive attitudes

Usually negative

Results in unfairness

Results in discrimination


A person who is obstinately or unreasonably attached to a belief, opinion, or faction, especially one who is prejudiced against or antagonistic toward a person or people based on their membership of a particular group.


A person who is blamed for the wrongdoings, mistakes, or faults of others, especially for reasons of expediency.

Collective Conscience

Collective consciousness, or collective conscious is the set of shared beliefs, ideas, and moral attitudes which operate as a unifying force within society. The term was introduced by the French sociologist Émile Durkheim in “The Division of Labour in Society” published in 1893.


The Group Conscience is the collective conscience of the group’s members, representing substantial unanimity on issues involving the group, before definitive action is taken. Most groups conduct group conscience meetings once a month after their regular meeting at a pre-announced time. Any member can participate in.

Period of

A transitional period is a period of great turbulence and turmoil, as a study of the history of Europe from the 17th to the 19th century, when Europe was passing through its own transition, reveals. During this period in Europe there was great turbulence, wars, social churning, chaos, revolutions, intellectual ferment, etc.


The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the earth.


Perceptual or Concrete Thinking: Is the simplest form of thinking, the basis of this type is perception, i.e. interpretation of sensation according to one’s experience. It is also called concrete thinking as it is carried out on the perception of actual or concrete objects and events.


The process of taking in and fully understanding and accepting information or ideas: “the assimilation of the knowledge of the Greeks”


Pluralism is a political philosophy holding that people of different beliefs, backgrounds, and lifestyles can coexist in the same society and participate equally in the political process. Pluralism assumes that its practice will lead decision-makers to negotiate solutions that contribute to the “common good” of the entire society.


The characteristics, key events, and situations which compose the essentials of human existence, such as birth, growth, emotionality, aspiration, conflict, and mortality.


An address or communication emphatically urging someone to do something: “no amount of exhortation had any effect”


To make something bad or unsatisfactory, better


The action, process, or result of combining or uniting: “opera is the amalgamation of singing, acting and stagecraft”